How much P is in a public ool?

The amount of urine in a large swimming pool is enough to fill a dustbin

A study published in 2014 in Environmental Science & Technology, for example, found that when uric acid in human urine mixes with chlorine, a toxic compound called cyanogen chloride (CNCI) and trichloramine (NCl3) is formed, TIME reported. Americans consume about 17 million metric tons of artificial sweeteners per year.

It's something we may suspect but usually don't want to think about too much.

Given the standard practice of cycling fresh water into pools, the study observations suggest urine levels in the pools were being replenished regularly.

Planning to hit an outdoor pool or waterpark this summer?

The research, from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, found that the average swimming pool contains 75 liters of human pee - proving true the commonly held belief that people relieve themselves underwater.

In a pool with 110,000 gallons of water, the researchers found that over the three-week period, swimmers released 7.92 gallons of urine.

About 250 samples were taken from 31 pools around the country and have shown positive signs of urine matter.

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After analyzing the water samples collected from the public pools, the scientists discovered that there is indeed urine in the water and, even more baffling, that the pee levels are high enough to pose a threat to public health.

Yet chlorine isn't a flawless solution because recent studies have shown that urine and sweat can react with chlorine to form disinfection byproducts.

Researchers then used the average concentration of ACE - which passes through the body unchanged - in Canadian urine to estimate an approximate volume of urine inside a larger sample of liquid, which the obtained from public pools.

The study was carried out in two unidentified cities in Canada, but it seems likely pool-peeing habits are similar in the rest of the world. We chose acesulfame potassium (ACE) as our target artificial sweetener. It can interact with chlorine to create a chemical called tri-chloramine, which irritates the eyes and has been linked to occupational asthma in professional swimmers.

RG: What do you recommend for people who regularly swim regularly to avoid health issues?

"We wanted to focus on urine because when there is a fecal incident at a swimming pool, everybody knows about it", says UA PhD student Lindsay Blackstock.

"We recommend that all pool users should rinse off excess personal care products in the provided showers before entering public pools", she told Research Gate.

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